The descendants of the Yamnaya culture's population - 2. The Sarmatians. Motives in the epos 'Ural-batir' about ancient migrations


B. A. Muratov



* According to research on DNA-archeology made in 2015, a whole complex of archaeological burials from Yamnaya culture, then to Poltavka culture and finally to part of the Early Sarmatian culture, proves their direct genetic succession to each other[1].




Scheme 1. The descendants of Z2103 on the tree of haplogroup R1b, June 29, 2017
Those, according to the data of paleo-DNA, we are talking about ancestors — Yamnaya culture and their descendants — Poltavka culture and part of the early Sarmatians.



Reprint 1. Paleo-DNA data of Yamnaya culture and their descendants




The scheme of Atanas Kumbarov and Sergey Malyshev[2] clearly shows which snps were characteristic of the ancient bearers of these archaeological cultures, and who is now by the male line the direct descendants of the Yamnaya culture, Poltavka and part of the early Sarmatians of Pokrovka.

These data from DNA-archeology show us that the Yamnaya culture (R1b-Z2103, Z2106 +, Z2108 +, KMS67 +, KMS75 +) are the direct genetic ancestors of Poltavkinians (R1b-KMS75 +), while the Poltavkinians are in turn the direct ancestors of part of the early Sarmatians of Pokrovka (R1b-KMS88 +).

This all sequence of snps Z2103 +> Z2106 +> Z2108 +> KMS67 +> KMS75 +> KMS88 + — is found among Bashkirs, Lezgins and Iraqis. Snps Z2103, Z2106 and Z2108, with separate clusters separated from them, are also found among a part of Germans, Slavs, Indo-Aryans, Iranians and Arabs.

Based on the modern geography of the R1b-Z2103 sublayer distribution, and also according to paleo-DNA data, it can be concluded that the western migration of Z2103 sub-warehouse carriers has gone to Germany, Greece and the Baltic. But the eastern migration of Z2103's carriers was along the line - Z2106, Z2108, KMS75, KMS67 and KMS88, and moved accordingly through the Black Sea to the east to the Caucasus and the Ural.

In this study, I would like to touch on the issues of the epic tradition of the Bashkirs, namely, from the epos "Ural-batir", which, in my opinion, has preserved the echoes of ancient events from the life of the distant ancestors of the Bashkirs, i.e. Of the population of Yamnaya culture (R1b) and the Battle Axe culture (R1a).

The origin of the Bashkirs R1a from the population of the Battle Axe culture, for example, is evidenced not only by genetic data, but also by motives from their mythology.

So in the epic ‘Ural-batir’ we find an ancient story, like the native son of the Ural  — Yaik (the ancestor of the Dahae: Saka-Qipsaqs and Wusun), says:


‘I came from afar, I found you.

I want to help you

Five times I tied myself with a cord’[3].


Binding several times with a cord is an ancient Mazdeistic and Zoroastrian custom, originally going back to the ancient Battle Axe culture, from which originally originated distant ancestors of R1a. As you know, representatives of this culture girded with cords and waistband not only themselves, but also objects of everyday life, for example ceramics to vessels in the form of waistbands, cords, etc., By the way, the second name of this culture — Corded Ware culture.

It is noteworthy, that in the heroic epos ‘Ural-batir’, in addition of a coming to the eastward of his son Yaik (the ancestor of the Dahae -Saka R1a-Z2123), was also described a migration of Haqmar (ancestor of the Yamnaya culture R1b-Z2103) to the east.

Buryjans are to the descendants of Haqmar, the son of Shulgan. Haqmar, according to the epos, does not take his father Shulgan's side and leaves him from western country and then coming to the east, to his native uncle Ural and to the country of Ural sons - to Ithel (Ross), to Nugush (Asii / Æsir) and to Yaik (Dahae-Saka) [4] .


Picture 1. Haqmar, nephew of the Ural, saint mentor a those R1b men, who chose the ethic road of the Ural
So in the epos "Ural-Batir" about Haqmar we read:
'F o u r t h    batir (hero):
My mother is Ay-hiliu [5],
My father was Shulgan,
He is your brother [of Ural],
But my father Shulgan went to the divas,
And day by day a face of my mother changes,
Her rays will be dimmed, ashamed of shame [of mine].
Although  [the Sun] and rival to Ay [6],
Only the light of the Sun is radiant now.
The grandfather of my mum was also disgusted [7].
Because he was deceived by Shulgan, because he having [daughter] given for Shulgan,
It is evident that grief threw out him [from his house]
Now grandfather disappeared from sight [8],
3 610. My mother said me:  [Son] I give you a Redhead Tolpar (tarpan) [9] …
Picture 2. The Redhead Tolpar (tarpan) of Haqmar
My son, sit on a tarpan,
Together with the Ithel[10] get walk of the way
Follow the Ural as if he is native father,
Go to the battle, my child,
Be a hero, Haqmar,
Find your father ... ‘.
In support of this epic legend, I also note that the R1b-Z2103 clusters present, although in a small number among the Slavic, Indo-Aryans and Iranians, and if by Haqmar means the R1b-Z2103 clade - we can be assumed that these descendants of the Yamnaya culture, and there are descendants of Haqmar. 
At least the plot line of the epic ‘Ural-batir’ admits such a scenario of events, so in the epic "Ural-batir" in the relationship between the two brothers of the Ural and Shulgan we have deal with the real events of history, including the ancient events of the Bronze Age, especially the world and the confrontation between the descendants of the Ural — (R1a-Z645), and descendants of Shulgan (R1b-L23).
Ethnogenomist A. A. Klyosov speaking of the Sarmatians, noted that the burial with persons, who lying on the back - in the part of the Sarmatian burials, probably should be associated with the tradition of R1b. It is also necessary to mention here a quote from V. V. Sedov, where pointed that: "the orientation of the buried Sarmatian tribes was not stable, but undergone changes over time", and "in the early Sarmatian burials, the heads of Sarmatians was oriented to south,''but this fact rather refle changes of the tribal composition of the Sarmatian tribes, and not cultural changes "[11].
This is a very important observation, which emphasizes the diiferent ethnic composition of the Sarmatians, in the period of their history. According to written sources, we also observe discrepancies, on the one hand, according to the Avesta, the Sarmatians are compared with the elder brothers of the Turanians and Iranians - the Sayrima (Sauromatians) [12]. A similar message is left to us from Herodotus, who noted that the Sauromats are descendants of the Scythians and Amazons. On the other hand, the same Diodorus Siculus and Pliny noted that part of the Sarmatians were related to the Medes and were moved from Iranian region to the north to Scythia [13].
Before the era of the Great Migration of Nations, ancient authors also noted the motley composition of the Sarmatian tribal union [14]. For example, by the DNA-genealogy data we found among the modern descendants of a part of Sarmatians — also carriers of other subclades of haplogroup R1b and other haplogroups, for example, the R1b-L584 and R1a-Z280 clusters, which in today was found at European peoples and at the Bashkirian Yurmats.
Sarmatia in the beginning of our era represented essentially as and now the same European part of modern Russia and the lands nearest the Aral and Caucasus, as well as the lands of the Baltic and Ukraine. On this territory there lived ancestors of the Balto-Slavic peoples — the Ross (Roxolani, Siraces); Turanians (Sayi, alans, massagetaes, aorsi); Adygs (Iazyges); Burdzhans (Massagetaes), Ugrians (as part of the Aorsi); Muyten (in the composition of the Aorsi), and other peoples [15]. All these peoples were tribes of the Sarmatian Union.
Accordingly, for the Sarmatian Union of tribes, I presume mainly the carriers of the haplogroup R1a-CTS1211 (Roxolani); R1a-CTS3402 (Roxolani); R1a-M458 (Asii); R1a-Z280 (Asii, Siraces, Roxolani); R1a-Z2123 (Sayi from Aorsi, Asii, Massagetaes-Alans), R1a-Z2122, Y57+ (Siraces and ancestors of white Khazar - Akatziri[16]); R1b-Z2103 (Massagetaes-Burdzhans); N-L1034 (Ugric / Uars from Aorsi); G-L1264 (Iazyges); J2-M172 (Muytens) [17].
And, in conclusion, we note that was also found the burial of a boy with haplogroup R1a, but a boy was buried according to the ritual of a Yamnaya archological culture[18]. It can be assumed that the buried boy was either a foster son, or a prisoner, or a hostage to the Yamnayas, but now we can not say this unequivocally. The fact of the presence of carriers of haplogroup R1a among the population of the Yamnaya archaeological culture opens one more unexplored page of relations between the carriers of haplogroups R1b and R1a among the steppe population of the Bronze Age of Eurasia, and it is possible that these relations were not only militant but friendly.
Bibliography and Notes:
* * Эту статью на русском языке, вы можете также прочитать по следующей ссылке, см. здесь —
1. Mathieson, Nature 2015; Haak, Lazaridis 2015.
2. Kumbarov A. R1b-KMS67 Phylogenetic Tree. March 5, 2017 created by Sergey Malyshev,, Soraman Base DNA, I0575 Pokrovka…
3. Башкирский народный эпос. Москва, Наука, 1977, С. 265-372, стих 3 440.
4. Saka (Qipsaq), they are Dahae-Wusun, according to the Bashkir epic are considered descendants of Yaik (Daih) son of the Ural. According to the paleo-DNA of Saka, representatives of the R1a-Z2123 sublayer, look at Mathieson et al. Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe, 2015. Genetic analysis and ethnic affinities of the two Scytho-Siberian skeletons, 2004.
5. Literally translation from the Bashkir language - 'Ay-hiLiu' - 'Lunar Beauty'. Mother's name of Haqmar. Look at the movie (1st part) about confrontation between the Ural and Shulgan in the epos "Ural", in the language of symbols. This film was created by the animator A. Lukichev, look at here,
6. The Sun's rival is the Moon. This is a lunar cult, which was worshiped by Shulgan, Haqmar's own father. According to the epic "Ural-batir", Haqmar refused from his father Shulgan and took the side of his uncle - Ural and his descendants, that is, he went on a sunny path. At present, according to DNA testing data, the descendants of Haqmar — the Buryjans and related their tribes — R1b, and the descendants of the Ural -Yyurmats, Elans, Tamyanas, Wusun, Qipsaq - R1a.
7. The cult of Venus (Tansulpan) — the morning dawn.
8. There is a description of the change of the Venus into the morning dawn, exists a near-similar general storyline with the eastern myth about the morning dawn.
9. Redhead Tolpar — or in other words — a golden sunny winged horse, tarpan. The mother of Haqmar — Ay-hiliu blesses Haqmar's son but don't to his father Shulgan, ie. by the Moon, material. She blesses of Haqmar and sent he to go the road of uncle Ural, by road of the Sun and ethic life.
10. Ithel (Volga) — the eldest native son of the Ural, the ancestor of the Ross. Since according to DNA testing data, the descendants of Ithel among the Bashkirs are part of the Yurmatian and Idel-Elan Bashkirs, they have Balto-Slavic R1a-Z280 clusters (CTS1211 and CTS3402). According to the epos, the Ay-hiliu blesses Haqmar's son, that he to go with Ithel.
11. Клёсов А. А. Читая В.В. Седова с точки зрения ДНК-генеалогии,
12. Marquart J. Eransahr…, P. 155.; He also. Wehrot und Arang, P. 136.
13. Латышев В. В. Известия древних писателей о Скифии и Кавказе // Вестник древней истории. М., 1947, №4.
14. Actually, the ethnonym 'Sarmatians' disappears by the beginning of the 2th century AD. And begining the new names of Eurasian clans - Alans, Huns, Oghuzs, Khazars, Antes, Sclaveni, Bulgars and other names.
15. Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. М., Урал, 2013. 2-е издание, ЭИПС, 267 с., ISBN: 978-599-045-83-14/
16. The fact that the part of Khazars from R1a-Y57 cluster already today been confirmed by paleo-DNA data. Look at here: Klyosov A. A., Faleeva T. Excavated DNA from Two Khazar Burials // Advances in Anthropology, 2017, 7, 17-21, ISSN Print: 2163-9353 January 18, 2017,
17. The latest Sarmatians of the beginning of AD, and especially by Roxolani (Ruses, Ross), it should be noted that these were predominantly carriers of the haplogroup R1a-Z280. Consequently, the direct descendants of Ross-Roxolani it Russians, Ukrainians and Belorussians, who and now constitute the main population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
18. Davidsky R. Monday, R1a in Yamnaya. March 21, 2016,




122. The Swadesh list — 1. For Tyurkic, Paleo-Asiatic, Ankalaku and Amerindian languages of Shoshone, Yakama, Nez Perce, Chumash, Choctaw, Mohawk and Purepecha peoples / New! DNA-genealogy of tatar surnames — 6. Vol. 2-nd. Saetgarievs, Yurmi clan and ancient Hungarians (Magyars) The descendants of the Yamnaya culture's population - 2. The Sarmatians. Motives in the epos 'Ural-batir' about ancient migrations The descendants of the Yamnaya culture's population - Bashkirs from the Buryjan and Singran clans, R1b-KMS75 subclade Pelasgians and Balto-Slavic. The search for common roots The descendants of Botai culture, Sauromatians, Savirs-Khazars (MT-DNA — K1 and Y-DNA — Q-M242) Bashkirs i1. Part 2. The data of the full sequence of the representatives from i1-z140 sublade Tocharians-Turanians and Pseudotocharians-Tarimians. The traces of Chemurchek migration Great Chemurchek migration from France to Altai at the beginning of the III-rd millennium B.C. - 1 History of the study and linguistic analysis of the Tocharian languages The origin of Nogais clans by the results of ethnogenomical expeditions of EH Project "Suyun" — 2 About the descendants of Genghis Khan by data of ethnogenomics - 1. The merkitian warrior Chiledu was father of Genghis Khan? La coincidencias lingüística - 1. Idioma baskir y español The DNA-genealogy of Bashkirs tribes - 8. Ayle, Qir-Qangli, Asili-Qobau, Ithel-Elan clans The haplogroups of the representatives from ancient Turkic clans - Ashina and Ashide The answers to ''the reviews'' and works of philisopher and political scientist Zh.M. Sabitov in History and Ethnogenomics - 1 The DNA-genealogy of Bashkirs tribes - 5. The descendants of Muytens (Hurrians-Mitanni) The selected texts from article: 'The ancient tribe - Alan'' Oghuz clans: ethnogenesis and genogeography - 1 The Big-Y results of Buryjan Bashkirs. Vol. 1 The origin of Nogais claThe genogeography of 67-markers haplotypes R1a. Information: March 2017 ns by the results of ethnogenomical expeditions of EH Project "Suyun" — 1






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