Two branches of the Kipchaks: Quns-Toksoba and Cumans-Polovtsians

B.A. Muratov

A Note by the Editor-in-Chief. The following article has not been edited; the author has employed a Google translation. (Note: A.Klyosov)


Kipchaks are heterogeneous and composed at least of two major sub-branches: Cumans-Kipchaks (polovtsians) and Quns-Kipchaks (toksoba) [1]

Cumans-Kipchaks (their other name is Polovtsians), the Bashkirs are named Qaraghay-Qipsaq [2], in Hungary this clan is Palócok. Their subclade is R1b+M73[3]. This is an eastern subclade R1b1a1, at the end of I millennium AD the ancestors of Dnieper Cossacks (Cherkas) and Palócok of Hungary still lived in the Altai region.
Subclade R1b+M73 is widely circulated among Kumandins of Altai,  Kazakhs tribe of Qara-Qipshaq, the Karakalpaks clan of Irgakli-Kipchak, the Dnieper Cherkas, and Bashkir clan of Qaraghay-Qipsaq. Bashkir clan of Girey-Qipsaq is not yet DNA tested. Presumably, Girey-Qipsaq will also be R1b+M73.
Kumandins are those Cumans-Kipchaks, who did not migrate to the West, and remained in the Altai. Kazakh Qara-Qipshaq, Karakalpak Irgakli-Kipchak and Bashkir Qaraghay-Qipsaq perhaps are those Cumans-Kipchaks who did not migrate to the west and remained in their places, the Kazakh — in the steppes of Kazakhstan, Karakalpakstan in the Aral Sea, Bashkir — in the Ural.
But it is possible also that the Qaraghay-Qipsaqs, Irgakli-Kipchaks and the Qara-Qipshaqs came to the Ural, the Aral Sea, in Kazakhstan, respectively, after the defeat of the Kipchaks in Eastern Europe, after defeating them by the  troops of Jochi Khan. Cossacks of the Dnieper — Cherkasy and Palócok of Hungary — are the direct descendants of the Polovtsian (the western branch of the Kipchaks-Cumans), which eventually reached the Danube.
The second branch of Kipchaks, which are the descendants of Quns, are the eastern Kipchak, another their name was Toksoba. From the eastern branch of Kipchaks, only one tribe of the Quns reached Danube, in Hungary they are called Kunok. Quns have a completely different haplogroup with subclade R1a+Z2123. Their descendants are Bashkirs of the following clans: Qariy-Qipsaq, Boshman-Qipsaq, Hiun-Qipsaq, Sankem-Qipsaq. The descendants of Quns-Kipchaks composed also the other clans of Bashkirs — Sura-Teleu, Bure-Teleu and clan of Hungarians — Kunok.
R1a+Z2123 is characteristic for Kipchak, who are descendants of Quns — their other name was Toksoba that mean «nine clans» ('tokus' — nine, 'oba' — clans).
Kuzeev R.G. in his book «The Origin of the Bashkir people» noted that the Elan tribe Bashkirs is also descendants of Kipchak. He writes: «In the XIII-XIV centuries, Elans were part of the (genus) Kipchak ("we elans are kipchaks», — said some old-timers). ... Elans are the descendants of one of the ancient Turkic tribes that were included in the Kipchak still at an early stage of their history of migration to the West»[4].
Judging by the DNA testing that opinion of Kuzeev RG is a mistake, because his hypothesis was based on the fact that the ethnonym «elan/yilan» coincides with the ethnonym «qai» in the sense of 'snake'[5]. But a DNA testing of Elans has shown that they do not have anything to do with Qun-Kipchak or Cuman-Kipchak[6].
Only a few haplotypes have been determined for Elans up to date. Most of them belong to R1a+Z280,  for example the family clan Kandri-Elan is R1a+Z2123 (with Alanian haplotype).
The Bashkir kipchaks are R1b+M73 (Cuman-Kipchak) and R1a+Z2123 (Qun-Kipchak).
And although Qun-Kipchaks SNP — Z2123 — like Elan, but their common ancestor lived more than 4 thousand years ago (A.A.Klyosov and I.L.Rozhanskii, private communications), the same range also of issues[7] and sub-branches of the NetWork program[8].
Some may object and say that not many Elans are DNA tested, in order to make any conclusions. Yes, it is possible that some part of the Elans may be Kipchaks, but I note that only a part of Elans — R1a+Z280 and R1a+Z2123 (with Alanian STR). May be some other Elans — will coincide with the Kipchaks.
In the last year, we have finally did a translate from the Chinese «The Biography of Tutuk» — he was a Qun-Kipchak general who served in the Yuan Dynasty. Therefore, this new information is that the ethnonym 'qun' is found in the East and in general the origin come from there.
Here are excerpts from the «Lives of Tutuk, the Chronicle» (Yuan Shi):
«The Tutuk. His ancestors came from the tribe, [lived in] Altangan mountains and rivers Dzherem in the north of Upin. Kun-Yan moved his forces to the north-west, towards the mountains Yuyli-boli, so [he] is for [independent] clans, and the name of his country — Kipchak. Its lands are separated from China by more than 30,000 to the summer nights [there] is extremely short and the sun barely fallen, once there. In Kun-Yan was born [son] Somonak have Somonak born Inasi. [They] were hereditary rulers of the state of Kipchak»[9].
Kun-Yan — the literal translation of 'role model of quns', the Turkic language his name literally 'soul-qun, spirit of qun'[10].
Dobrodomov I.G. in a special study reliably showed that the ancient Russian ‘Hinove’ is through the medium of Bulgar, a reflection of the names of Kipchak-Qun, were heard in the XII century as «Huun»[11].

Table 1. The R1a+Z2123 subclade of Bashkirs (NetWork © )


The table contains only Bashkir haplotypes with subclades Z2123 and one Indo-Aryan haplotype L657. Sub-branch L657 included in the table to show the difference with the other sub-branches subclades Z2123. The red lines indicate the present sub-branches in Bashkir subclades Z2123, prior to the first separating them SNiP. Green names are approximate sub-branches. Massagetaes indicated in the table only R1a-group, there is also R1b + L150 Massagetaes, in the table, they are not specified. Blue given local names in the branches and the names of ancestors. Gray line represents the sub-branch L657 - that is not found in Bashkir people.

And here is what Sinologist R.P.Khrapachevskiy said: «Another proof of the inclusion of the Bashkirs of Kipchak-Quns is the presence of cry (uranium) toksoba they have — as we know, it is kind of Toksoba well-known among the pre-Mongolian Kipchak». And in Russian chronicles «toksobichi» and «kaepichi» (the members of the genus — Qai) are often mentioned together, which correlates with the message about the connection of Marvazi about Kipchak hordes Quns and Qai[12].

And then he's R.P.Khrapachevskiy writes: «One can assume that part of the defeated former Kipchak hordes Inasi Khan fled to the Bashkirs — the reason for this is their neighborhood, and the availability of Bashkir descent unit whose name is directly related to the Kipchak-Qun — Suun-Kipchak. The fact that Suun-Kipchaks is accepted in writing of Russian literature, but the actual pronunciation of the ethnonym else, and now it sounds like — Hiun-Qipsaq (hуун-kыпсаk/hiun-qipsaq — in Bashkirian)» [14].

Kimeks, they also are Cumans, the ancestors of Polovtsian Kipchak. This was written more Marquart: «From the middle of the tenth century. disappears tribal name Kimeks and Marquart explains this by saying that they were conquered by another, by a new horde ... — Quns. These Quns and brought Polovtsians-Kimeks in Europe»[15].

Stands apart from other Bashkirian Kipchaks — clan Turkmen-Qipsaq, other name is Aq-Qipsaq. In our project of FTDNA (National clans), there are two Turkmen-qipsaqs — and both have matches of their haplotypes with Turkmen-Oghuz. No accident that the Bashkirs aq-qipsaqs called Turkmens, and the DNA they were relatives Oghuz-Turkmen clans[16].

The DNA origin of the Kipchak fits with the ancient Bashkir shejere (genealogies). This fit is much more accurate than the opinions of many venerable scholars and historians of the past. Sometimes shejere present truly factual materials, but historians interpret them not correctly, however, it happens that later they recognize that it was the right shejere.

Bashkir shejere directly fits to the data on DNA genealogy of Bashkirs. Here's an example. In a Joint Shejere of Bashkir Tribes the Kyrgyz are not mentioned. There are Bikatin, Sart, and others, but not Kyrgyz. DNA genealogy shows that suggestions of some historians that the Bashkirs spun off from the so-called Kyrgyz branch, were wrong.

Deep DNA clade testing of Kyrgyz clans showed that the common ancestor of Kyrgyz R1a and Bashkirs clans of Sakes-Dinlings, Massagetaes-Alans and Wusuns sub-branches lived more than 4,300 years ago. Neither  the Kyrgyz, and even neither Sakes, Wusuns and Massagetaes-Alans existed such a long time ago, as well as their language.

Kyrgyz are mentioned in the same Bashkir shejere, and their genealogy points at the western Bashkirs. This implies that perhaps some clans and the Bashkirs relatives Kyrgyzes Tien Shan, might form a clan called 'Kyrgyz' of the Bashkir people.

DNA testing proved the negative SNP Z2123 in Kyrgyz. It seems that the Bashkirs (at least three of their sub-branches of subclades Z2123): Wusuns, Sakes-Dinlings and Massagetaes-Alans — are not related by birth to the Kyrgyz. But we cannot exclude a possibility, that some Baskirs in the future will be found to be relativesw with the Kyrgyz, for example, with negative SNP Z2123[17].

Table II. Sakes-Dinlings line of Bashkirs (NetWork © )


Bibliography and Notes:

[1] Расовский Д.А. Половцы. Расовский Д.А. Половцы. Чёрные клобуки: печенеги, торки и берендеи на Руси и в Венгрии (работы разных лет). М., ЦИВОИ, 2012, 240 с., ЭИП «Суюн», Серия МИ, Том. I, С.122; Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ЭИП «Суюн», Серия ЭиД, Том. I, 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное, ISBN 9785990458314, С.120.

[2] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ЭИП «Суюн», Серия ЭиД, Том. I, 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное, ISBN 9785990458314, С.104.

[3] “Soraman” project of FTDNA/ BASHKIRS * R1b+M73 * CUMANS-POLOVTSIAN LINE

[4] Кузеев Р.Г. Происхождение башкирского народа. Этнический состав, история расселения. Уфа, ГНУ АН РБ, 2010, С.341.

[5] Башкирско-русский словарь онлайн.

[6] “Peoples” project of FTDNA/ Кыпсак, Елан

[7] Клёсов А.А., Муратов Б.А., Суюнов Р.Р. ДНК-генеалогия башкирских родов//Proceedings of the Academy of DNA Genealogy. Vol.6, №6, June 2013, Boston-Moscow-Tsukuba, ISSN 1942-7484. P.1083, 1087.

[8] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ЭИП «Суюн», Серия ЭиД, Том. I, 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное, ISBN 9785990458314, С.169.

[9] Yuan Shi, P.3131.

[10] Храпачевский Р.П. Половцы-куны в Волго-Уральском междуречье (по данным китайских источников). М., ЦИВОИ, 2013, 128 с., ЭИП «Суюн», Серия МИ, Том. II, С.20.

[11] Добродомов И.Г. О половецких этнонимах в древнерусской литературе// Тюркологический сборник 1975, С.125.

[12] Клёсов А.А., Муратов Б.А., Суюнов Р.Р. ДНК-генеалогия башкирских родов//Proceedings of the Academy of DNA Genealogy. Vol.6, №6, June 2013, Boston-Moscow-Tsukuba, ISSN 1942-7484. P.1083, 1098.

[13] Kipchaks. 3D-animations of kipchaks (cumans and quns).

[14] Храпачевский Р.П. Половцы-куны в Волго-Уральском междуречье (по данным китайских источников). М., ЦИВОИ, 2013, 128 с., ЭИП «Суюн», Серия МИ, Том. II, С.36-37.

[15] Marquart J. Uber das Volkstum der Komanen. Berlin, 1914, P.56-57, 111.

[16] “National clans” project of FTDNA/ H

[17] “Kirgiz DNA-project” of FTDNA/ fe. 220512 Toktogulov and etc.





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