The DNA-genealogy of Bashkir tribes

A.A. Klyosov, B.A. Muratov, R.R. Suyunov

 (The text from Russian into English translated

by Inna Suyunova-Fernandes)

 

Current FTDNA project 'National tribes' and the previous information from the project site ‘Suyun’[1] includes 95 haplotypes which are extended from 12 to 111 markers. Specifically for this study were selected haplotypes with Bashkirian roots, as correct as we could determine, including 37 to 67 markers. As a result 56 to 37 of various haplotypes were discovered[2].

As you can see on a fragment of a phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R1a, the tree is clearly divided into haplotype subclades R1a+L342.2(Z94), R1a+L657 and R1a+Z2123:

• • • • • • • R1a1a1b2 Z93

• • • • • • • • R1a1a1b2a Z94

• • • • • • • • • R1a1a1b2a1 L342.2

• • • • • • • • • • R1a1a1b2a1a L657

• • • • • • • • • • • R1a1a1b2a1a1 Y7

• • • • • • • • • • R1a1a1b2a1b Z2123

Subclades of R1a+L342.2[3]

This data suggest that during the Aryan migration across the Eastern European Plain, subclade R1a+L342.2, R1a+Z2123 segregated from R1a+L342.2, and the two later became part of the existing Bashkir ethnic group.

As a general theory we know the time when the formation of the two subclades took place. Subclades R1a+Z93, R1a+L342.2 formed 4900±500 years ago, and R1a+Z93, R1a+L342.2, R1a+L657 formed 4050±460 years ago[4]. However, with the appearance of new halopgroups, these figures are constantly changing.

Figure 1. Represent a tree-shaped table of 37 Bashkirian haplotypes with 67 markers

 

It shows the basic subclades of haplogroup R1a and other single haplogroups according to the new data. Since there is a clear 'parallel' between subclades Z2123 and L657, it is believed that it could appear anytime before then 4900 years ago.  Moreover, bearers of subclades L657 are believed to have migrated to India and nowadays call themselves Indian Aryans. The same haplotype of the same subclade was also found during excavations in the Minusinsk Hollow which dates back 3800-3400 years ago. This findings do not contradict the dating of formation of the  subclade L657.

B.A.Muratov does not exclude that those subclades R1a+Z2123 can also be found in the burials’ remains of the Andronov’s archeological excavations[5].

In case if the subclade Z2123 will not be found in India and the Middle East, as L657, it will mean that bearers of Z2123 stayed on the Russian plain, and therefore, it will make Bashkirs the only existing ethnic group with the subclade Z2123.

Article[7] demonstrates that the basic Bashkirian 111-marker haplotype, following sub-branch of the subclades Z2123, takes the form of[8]:

13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 11 31 -- 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 31 12 15 15 15 — 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 19 35 39 14 11 — 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 10 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 13 — 33 15 9 15 11 26 28 19 11 12 1212 10 9 12 11 10 11 12 30 13 14 24 13 9 10 19 15 19 12 24 14 13 15 24 12 23 19 10 15 17 9 11 11

and the age of the common ancestor comprises of 1125±190 years. These results were recorded after examining ten haplotypes.

B.A.Muratov assigns this sub-branch to Wusuns, which consists of Bashkirian tribes like Suun, Balikchi, Kothey, Kalser, Irekte, part of Tabin and Ayle[9].

A.A.Karimov connect part of Wusun haplotypes with Baykovich, ie the descendants of Maiky-Biy (Baiku-Noyon). He belonged to Hushin tribe (Wusun, Wusong), who had served under Jochi Khan, who lived in the XIII century AD[10].

Together with 14 haplotypes of L657 subclade in the branch (in Fig. 1 shows the 16 haplotypes, but two of them are duplicates), 111-marker haplotype appears as shown bellow (alleles for markers 68-111 defined by the eight haplotypes), and differs only with three alleles:

13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 11 31 -- 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 31 12 15 15 15 — 11 11 19 23 16 15 19 20 35 38 14 11 — 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 10 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 13 — 33 15 9 15 11 26 28 19 11 12 1212 10 9 12 11 10 11 12 30 13 14 24 13 9 10 19 15 19 12 24 14 13 15 24 12 23 19 10 15 17 9 11 11

The first 67 markers of 14 haplotypes contain 88 mutations, which gives 88/14/0.12 = 52 à 55 conventional generations (each with 25 years), meaning that each has more or less 1375±200 years till the common ancestor. 

This data is consistent with a slight error with the above dating, but apparently, the latter figure is more accurate. Here 0.12 — is the constant rate of mutation speed, including mutations in the 67-marker haplotype in the conventional generation in 25 years.

in another sub-branch of subclades Z2123 there are only 6 haplotypes, based on the following

13 25 15 11 11 13 12 12 10 13 11 31 -- 15 9 9 11 11 25 14 20 33 12 15 15 16 — 11 11 19 23 16 16 18 20 34 38 13 11 — 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 11 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 12 8 14 23 18 11 12 11 13 11 11 12 13 — 32 16 9 15 12 23 27 19 12 12 1212 10 9 13 11 10 11 12 30 12 14 24 13 9 11 20 15 18 11 23 15 12 15 24 12 23 19 10 15 17 9 11 11

Clearly, this subclade is very different from the base haplotype of the Wusun sub-branch of the Bashkirian subclade Z2123 — 24 mutations in the 67-marker haplotypes, and 41 mutations in the 111-marker haplotypes. This difference shows that they are being separated by a large time interval. It is equal to 24/0.12 = 200 à 249 conditional generations, or about 6225 years for the 67-marker haplotypes, or 41/0.198 = 207 à 260 generations, that is 6500 years for the 111-marker haplotypes. The difference in these results is only 4%.

The second sub-branch of subclade Z2123 is characterized by other Bashkirian tribes like of the Bashkirs of the Qariy-Qipsaq, Hiun-Qipsaq, Sankem-Qipsaq, Boschman-Qipsaq, Suyun-Nughay-Buryjan, Sura-Uf-Teley and Bure-Teleu.

As we can see, most of these Bashkirian tribes belong to Kipchaks and Teleu.

B.A.Muratov  and R.R.Suyunov link the second sub-branch with the Saka-Dinlings tribes which occupied territories of the Aral Sea in the west to Minusinsk Hallow in the east in the first millennium BC. Their tribes have also settled in parts of South India[12]. Saka-Dinlings tribes as well as Wusuns and  Massagetaes-Alans  are a major branch of the Turanian branch R1a,  and are united by a common snp of R1a+Z2123[13].

The common ancestor of the tribes like Saka-Dinlings, Wusuns and Massagetaes-Alan from the subclades Z2123 lived (750+6500+1375)/2 = 4300 years ago. These results suggests that the subclade Z2123 is quite «old», taking into account that both sub-branches separated long time ago, demonstrating how far they stand from each other.

Therefore, it can be concluded that all three sub-branches — Z2123-Wusuns, Z2123-Saka-Dinlings, Z2123-Massagetaes-Alans, and subclade L657-Indoaryans were once formed within one millennium, in the III Century BC. All of them belong to the category of the Aryan subclades, but the Z2123, perhaps, did not go to India and Iran, evenhough this assumption should be investigated further on.

The geographical settlements of the Saka-Dinlings tribes were detected from the Ural territory till the Minusinsk Hollow dating back to the I Century BC. Since the Bronze Age, the descendants of the ancient Aryan tribes, whose names are in the forms of: 'turs, turans, hiona, sakes, sais, dinlings, xionites, tele, huni' — were found in an Ancient Persian[14] and Chinese historioghraphies[15].

Most likely bearers of Saka-Dinlings sub-branch are tribes like Qipsaq (Kipchaks) and Teleus. Reserches normally consider Kipchaks and Teleus as the descendants of the Tele tribes. Accordingly,  G.E.Grumm-Grzhimailo, notes that the western branch Dinlings was mixed with the nomadic population of Kazakhstan and became known as the Kipchak tribe. G.E.Grumm-Grzhimailo states: «On the west, the elements of 'Andronov's culture' experience it's Minusinsk Hollow influence, and therefore it is possible to see traces of ancient Kipchaks  in 'Andronov's culture'. The so-called Kuyu-She — Kipchaks were undoubtely of the Dinling origin ...»[16].

L.P.Potapov writes that therefore the main Turkic tribal groups like Teleuts, Telengits and Teles preserved in its name ancient ethnonym 'tele'[19]. R.G.Kuzeev also believes that the Bashkirian Teleu group takes its origin in Teleuts' roots, what also helps explains the identical features in both ethnonyms — 'Teleut' and Teleu'[20]. B.A.Muratov is also convinced about the strong correlation between the Bashkiria Teleu group from the tribes of Tele (Dinling)[21].

The G.E.Grumm-Grzhimailo's opinion is supported by paleoanthropologist G.F.Debets, who also writes: «The epicentre of the formation of the Andronov's subtype happened in the steppes of Kazakhstan, while in the Minusinsk area Andronovo are considered to be the Western newcomers»[17]. Also the origin of the Kipchaks from the Western tribes Tele (Dinling) was supported by L.N.Gumilev, who claimed in his research that «there is no reason not to consider Andronovo's Kipchaks as a Western version of the Dinling race»[18]. While R.G.Kuzeev, L.P.Potapov and B.A.Muratov claims that Teleu was a race that was originated from the tribes of Tele.

Some tribes from the Saka-Dinlings sub-branch of the Turan subclade R1a+Z2123, joined the Sarmatian union of Ural tribes  (before the Ural mountains), and became known as Aorsai (Aorsen). Their very rthnicon suggests the following connection Aor (abar) + Sai (Sakes), in other words a union of two tribes like a federacy of tribes Aor (Abar) and Sai (Sakes).

There is almost no information about the Aor (Abar) tribes. L.N.Gumilev states that Abars were a real relic of an ancient ethnos, whose glory resounded up until VI century.

He continues by suggesting that it was Abars who destroyed Ugric and Samoyed tribes in the Western Siberia (so-called «trolls»), forcing those escaping along the frozen rivers Ob, Volga and Enisey[22].

According to another researcher — N.Y.Bichurin, Abar were neither Huns, nor Teles,  nor Turkics. He calls them «Special generation»[23].

«Special generation» suggesting that Abars were descendants of Parni (Aparna), of which, as you know, came to exist Arshakid's Parthian dynasty[24].

Another interesting data was found in the ancient Chinese chronicles «Hou Han Shu», dated back to the First Century AD.  There it says that possessions of Yantsay/Ant-sai (Aorsen) were renamed to Alanya[25]. This evidence suggests that either Alan tribes overruled Aorsen tribes, or some sort of superior group called 'Alan' appeared among Aorsens tribe.

There is also a hypothesis that the ethnonym 'alan' is one of the versions of the ethnonym ‘aryan’[26], meaning ‘host, guest, mate’ [27].

Relying on the previous theories, can be assumed that Abar group from the Aorsy tribe, also known in Sako-Horesmian[28] version 'Alan', came to domanate the whole group.  

Moreover, we know about Alans from ancient writers like Ammianus Marcellinus. He wrote: «Alans — earlier called Massagetaes ... — Little by little, emaciated other nations with their victories and extended their Alan origin by calling Alan to other people, almost as Persians did»... — «over time they took the same name and now generally everyone is known to be Alans for their customs, wild lifestyle and similar armament» [29].

This is a very crucial fact to the investigation, as it suggests that Alanian alliance could incorporate members of different tribes, besides the original Alan members. As a result, this statement can explain that later when Huns began their expansion to the West, Sarmatian tribes like Aorsens, Roxolani, Iazyges, Siraces and actual Massagetaes-Alans made part of them, but were all referred to as Alans.

Alanian Union of tribes, apparently, was a fragile confederation, as the Eastern Aorsens, named Abar, at the end of the I AD started to migrated from the Urals to the Tarbagatai and Dzungaria.

While the Western part of Aorsen, composed of Alans, also broke down due to the invasion of the Huns. Some with Alan tribes went to the west, whereas the others together with the Saka-Chionites remained in the Aral Sea region. Aral Aorsen descendants were later known in history under the name of Avar-Varhionites[30].

In FTDNA has a coincidental matches with the Bashkirs of Saka-Dinlings sub-branches, one of them 180380 also has a subclade R1a+Z2123. B.A.Muratov ties these coincidental matches with the Western Aorsen descendants.

R1a-Unknown USA 251923 13 25 15 — 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 29 14 9 9 11 11 23 14 20 32 15 15 15 15 — — — 12 11 19 22 16 15 18 19 34 34 12 11 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 14 10 12 12 13 8 15 26 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 13

R1a+Z2123 USA 180380 13 25 15 — 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 29 14 9 10 11 11 23 14 20 32 12 15 15 16 — — — 12 11 19 22 16 15 18 19 34 37 12 11 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 14 10 12 12 13 8 15 26 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 13

R1a+L342.2 Russia 235754 13 25 16 — 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 29 14 9 10 11 11 25 14 20 35 12 15 15 16 — — — 11 11 19 23 16 15 19 20 34 37 13 11 11 8 17 17 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12 33 15 9 15 12 26 27 19 12 12 11 12 10 9 12 11 10 11 11 30 12 15 24 13 9 10 18 15 19 11 23 15 12 15 24 12 23 19 10 15 16 9 11 11

R1a+L342.2 Russia 219516 13 25 17 — 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 14 9 10 11 11 25 14 20 34 12 15 15 16 — — — 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 20 34 37 13 11 11 8 17 17 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 16 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 13 12 12 13 11 11 12 12

R1a+L342.2 214554 13 25 16 — 10 11 13 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 30 12 14 15 16 — — — 11 11 19 22 16 15 18 18 35 37 12 11 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 13 23 21 13 12 11 13 10 11 12 13

R1a+Z2124, Z2122- Poland 57291 13 26 15 — 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 33 13 15 15 16 — — — 11 11 23 23 16 15 18 18 34 38 13 11 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 24 21 12 12 11 13 10 11 12 13 33 12 9 15 12 26 27 19 12 12 12 12 10 9 12 11 10 11 11 30 12 13 24 13 9 10 19 15 16 10 23 15 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 15 17 9 11 11

R1a+L342 Karachay 240222 13 25 15 — 11 12 14 12 12 10 13 11 31 15 9 10 11 11 25 14 20 31 12 14 15 17 — — — 11 12 19 23 16 17 17 19 34 37 12 11 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 13

Bashkirs from Saka-Dinlings sub-branch belong exactly to the descendants of the eastern branch of Aorsen, or in other words to Abars, and their subsequent history, from  the era of the Great Migration, developed in Asia.

L.N.Gumilev in his research tells us briefly about the history of Abars in Asia. It is known, for example, that Abars have stopped the Tarbagatay's Army, headed by Xianbei General — Tanshihay.The army consisted of Mukrin and Amur Tungus tribes[31].

L.N.Gumilev continues by claiming that it was obvious that Jungar Abars were very brave, as there have left a lot of Mucrin ethnos, where their courage and fortitude is repeatadly glorified.

Drought of the III century separated Mukrins and Abars from the Eastern, Western and Northern neighbors, as it also gave them a chance to survive. Mukrins and Abars were not at war with each other for a long time, as their lives we always threatened by a common enemy — the robbery empire of Rouran (Zsuzsan, Jujanh).

With the pressure of Rouran, Mukrins always moved to the Tien Shan Mountains. They were accustomed with the life in the mountains, as their previous dwelling place was at Hingan Mountains. Only in 552 AD Ashina’s Turks defeated Rouran’s power.

Abars were also mentioned in the VII Century AD by their own name, whereas later on they were defeated by Ashina's army and mixed with the descendants of Mukrins and, therefore, merging in a complex ethnic group of Turgesh, which consisted of the Yellow (Mukrins) and Black (Abars) branches.

In the VII century Turgesh created their kingdom (khanate), which existed as a Second Turkic Khanate until the middle of VII century. As for the Abar's descendants, they are known today as Karakalpaks, who migrated to Old Russia (Ancient Rus) in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Nowadays they call themselves Chorni Klobuky (it’s mean «black hats»)[32].

DNA-Genealogy confirms L.N.Gumilev's opinion. Descendants of the 'black clobuks' can be easily matched with Karapalks from the Estek tribes, with Bashkirs from Elan and Biktan tribes, and also with Karachay-Balkars (which were the descendants of  Massaget-Alan sub-branches). Moreover, Massaget-Alan sub-branch has the same subclade as the Saka-Dinlings sub-branch, ie R1a+Z2123.

247851 Kandri-Elan Bashkir Yuldash (1700-?), Ural, Bashkortostan, Elan clan Russian Federation R1a1a 13 25 16 11 11-14 12 12 10 12 11 29 15 9-10 11 11 25 14 20 32 12-14-15-16 11 12 20-24 14 16 17 18 35-39 13 11 11 8 17-17 8 12 10 8 11 11 12 22-22 15 10 12 12 13 8 15 23 21 12 12 11 13 11 11 12 13

211933 Bostan, Karachay Russian Federation R1a1a+Z2123 13 25 16 11 11-14 12 12 10 12 11 29 15 9-10 11 11 25 14 20 33 12-14-15-16 11 12 19-24 16 16 17 19 35-39 13 11 11 8 16-17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22-22 15 10 12 12 13 8 15 23 21 12 12 11 13 11 11 12 13

275449 Bostanov Ataul Karabuga, Karachay Russian Federation R1a1 13 25 16 11 11-14 12 12 10 12 11 30

247853 Khrapach Ukraine Cossack Khrapach (1596), Ukraine, Tork Cossack clan Ukraine R1a1 13 25 16 11 11-14 12 12 10 13 11 29

262277 Estek Karakalpak Esemurat (XVIII), Karakalpakstan, Estek clan Uzbekistan R1a1a 13 25 16 11 11-14 12 12 10 13 11 30

262274 Estek-2 Karakalpak Esemurat (XVIII), Karakalpakstan, Estek clan Uzbekistan R1a1a 13 25 16 11 11-14 12 12 10 13 11 30 19 9-9 11 11 24 14 20 30 12-12-14-15-15-15-16-16 10 11 19-23 16 15 19 18 34-34 14 11

211864 Sharipov Kyshtym, South Ural, bashkirs, Bikatin clan Russian Federation R1a1a 13 25 16 11 11-15 12 12 10 13 11 30

262284 Estek-3 Karakalpak Jalimbet (XIX), Karakalpakstan, Estek clan Uzbekistan R1a1a 13 25 16 11 11-15 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9-10 11 11 25 14 19 32 12-14-14-17 11 12 19-23 15 16 18 19 34-38 12 8.

Interestingly, when analysing the history of the origin of the Saka-Dinling sub-branch, some ethnonyms as 'Hiona', 'Saka', 'Sarmatian', 'Aorsen', 'Tele' (Dinling) have been preserved in the present Bashkirian generic and family names, what, in turn, helped to classify their origin.

Consequently, ethnonym 'Hiona', has been reflected in the name of the tribe Huun (hуун — Bashkirian) and generic surnames Suyunov (hөйөн — Bashkirian); ethnonym 'Sakes' in the name of a tribe ‘Qipsaq’ (kыпсаk — Bashkirian); ethnonym 'Sarmatian' in antroponym 'Sura' (Сура — Bashkirian, means Sarmatian in Bashkirian); ethnonym ‘Aorsen’ in antroponym ‘Aursay’ (Ауырсай — Bashkirian); ethnonym ‘Tele’ in the title of tribe Teleu (Тeләү — Bashkirian)[33].

It would seem that there could be no more discoveries made relating to the origin of Saka-Dinlin sub-branch. However, R.R.Suyunov's scientific investigation contributes to this research, focusing on the later history of this sub-branch in Asia.

In particular, he could discover that Bashkirs from Saka-Dinlings sub-branch are mainly representatives of family generations, like Suyun (hөйөн), Kipchaks (kыпсаk) and Teles (тeләү).

Later on by sinologist R.P.Kharapachevskiy was found a link these clans with Kuno-Kipchaks. Kuns-Tokcoba returned in XI century, headed by the with them leader Kun-Yan (Qun-Yan),  from Inner Mongolia on the Ural mountains (or other words: discovered a connection between these family lines with Kuns-Kipchaks, who returned from the Inner Mongol territories to the Cis-Ural mountains in the XI century) [34].

It is known that Kipchaks are normally divided into two branches: Cumans-Kipchaks (Cherkass) and Kuns-Kipchaks (Toksobichi)[35]. This view has been officially confirmed by DNA-Geneology. In this manner, the descendants of Cossacks-Cherkass to Russians, Qara-Qypshaqs to Kazakhs, Kipchaks to Karakalpaks and Qaraghay-Qipsaqs to Bashkirs, were all descendants of one subclade R1b+M73, with a single 12-marker type STR.

Laboratory of Molecular Human Genetics, Ufa. Qaraghay-Qipsaq clan Bashkortostan R1b1a1 13 19 14 10 13-13 12 12 13 14 13 30

105120 KaraQypshaq>Yzyn>Altys>Baigara-uly 1868-1952 Kazakhstan R1b1a1

13 19 14 11 13-13 12 12 13 14 13 30

 

262276 Mr. Qangli-Kipchak Karakalpak Irgakli-Kipchak clan Uzbekistan R1b1a1 13 19 14 10 13-13 12 12 13 14 13 30

262289 Cherkas Cossack Chernigov, Dnieper Cossack clan Russia R1b1a1

13 19 14 11 13-13 12 12 13 14 13 30

Tursunbayev Kazakh R1b1a1

13 19 14 11 13-13 12 12 13 14 13 30.

Another branch of the Kipchaks, so-called Kuns (Toksobichi), who were descendants of the Saka-Dinlings sub-branch of the Bashkirs, has a single 12-marker type STR as well, but with a different subclade R1a + Z2123:

Boshman-7 Qipsaq Bashkir Rahmangul(XVIII),Bashkortostan,Boshman-Qipsaq clan Russian Federation R1a1 13 25 15 11 11-13 12 12 10 13 11 31

Sankem-2 Qipsaq Bashkir RsMohamet (XIX), Bashkortostan, Sankem-Qipsaq clan Russian Federation R1a1 13 25 15 11 11-13 12 12 10 13 11 31

Bure Teleu Bashkir Muldash (XVII), Ural, Bashkortostan, Bure-Teleu clan Russian Federation R1a1 13 25 15 11 11-13 12 12 10 13 11 31.

R.R.Suyunov and B.A.Muratov revealed from the archival materials not just the origin of the Bashkirs of Saka-Dinlings sub-branches in more recent times, but the origin of the tested directly in the project 'Suyun' family leneages like Huun-, Sankem-, Boschman-Qipsaqs, Suyun-Nughay-Buryjans and Sura-Teleu from Kun-Yan, who lived in the XI century AD. This data was confirmed with the help of genealogical calculations. According to the A.A.Klyosov calculations first 67 markers of Saka-Dinlings sub-branch of the Bashkirs — a total of 21 mutations from the base haplotype, which gives 21/6/0.12 = 29 à 30 generations, or 750±180 years to a common ancestor. While accordingly to I.L.Rozhanskii's research, the lifetime of a common ancestor of Saka-Dinlings sub-branche, relying on the basic 6 haplotypes — defines the period of 800+200 years ago.

The name «Kun-Yan (Qun-Yan)»[36], if relying on the R.P.Khrapachevskiy's explanation, is well etymologized in Turkic languages, meaning «Example of Kuns» (or other words: «Spirit of Kuns», «Best of Kuns»). The name Kun-Yan can be found in the biographies of Kipchaks general Tutuq of the Yuan Dynasty.

R.P.Khrapachevsky also states that «the drafters of the biography Tutuq in the «Yuan Shi» were mainly relying on the Tszitszibey documents of his grandson Dalyk (Yu Ji's authorship) and on the Izitsibei memorial (a stele in honor of an public official commemorating his merit awards and career paths) of the Tutuq (Yan Fu's authership).

These texts contained variants of their common genealogical legend. Both texts belonged to Yu Ji and Yan Fu and were published by the author Su Yuan Tian-Jue in the collections «Gotchau Wen-Lei» (tcz.26) and и «Yan Min-Chen Shilyue» (tcz.3), written in 1330-1340’s. Therefore, Marquart has used Tutuq's ancestor's name, that has been used in «Yuan Shi», who moved from their original habitat in the North-West. The refence to this fact can be traced in Cuyi-Chu (or as is written in the «Yuan»). Moreover, it passes familiar Turkic name «Kuchuk». However, when refering to the old scripts — «Gotchau Wen-Lei» and «Yuan-Chen Min Shilyue», shows that ancient publishers (carvers) of the Ming edition of «Yuan», mistakenly put sign 出 'chu' instead of sign 年 'nyanh' (being similar in handwriting) in the name of Qu-Chu (Tsyuy-Nyan — Chinese)[37]. Being correct, this ancestor was actually called (in Chinese transcription of his name) Kun-Yan, what substantially changes historical interpretations. In XIII-XIV centuries such symbols were used to transcribe pronunciation of a non-Chinese name, which can be passed as Kun-Yan[38].

If you look closely at the content of the “Yuan Shi” specifically to the description of  Tsyuy-Nyan/Kun-Yan, it becomes clear that he was one of the Kuns leaders.

Those Kuns that have been mentioned by Marvazi. Here is full quote:

«Tutuq: his ancestors came from the tribe, [lived in] who dwelled near Altangan mountains and Dzherem river in the north of Upin[39]. Independintly Kun-Yan moved to the northwest, towards the Yuyli-boli Mountains, so [he] is for [independent] race, and the name of his state — «Kipchak». His lands are separated from China by more than 30,000 li, to the summer nights [there] is extremely short and the sun barely falls, when rises again. In Kun-Yan had a  [son] Somonak, and later Samonak had son Inasi. [They] were hereditary rulers of the Kipchak state»[40].

R.P.Khrapachevsky also notes that Hun-Yan could be a grandfather of the Kun-Yan, who had ruled over the Tsubu. Later on his grandson was apparently called after him.  In chronicles «Liao-Shi» says: «Telabuga, who was a younger brother Hun-Yan, was a rebel leader of Tsubu, led his army away from the tribe and joined [Liao] ... Nine tribes sent messengers...». Nine tribes, or in other words Tuksaba (Tokus-oba,Toksobichi) were used in history to refer to Kuns-Kipchaks.

If we could determine the geographical location of the mountains «Yuyli-boli», then it is much easier to find out the Tutuq's reigning time period  as well as tribe's nomadic dwelling place.  R.P.Khrapachevsky in this regard, explains the 'boli' transcription could signify Yuan's common word 'Balyk' which means 'town', and 'Yu-li' is a transcription for «Ur»[41]. Thus, the «Yuan Shi» text refers to a certain place named ‘mountain/hill Ur-Balyk’. Modern Chinese revisers of “Yuan Shi” text and its various translations, after substantial revisions and researches, came to a general opinion that the text could refer to the geographical place somewhere between Ural Mountains and Volga River[42]. From our side we will try to prove this theory with other sources. Immediately striking inconsistency in its name — 'a mountain/hill', however the name also includes reference to the word 'town/city'.

Therefore, it is possible that it is a city with some surrounding hills or if we imagine all the words in its original Tuyrk form, then it should sound like «Ur-tag Balik»[43]. Later 'Tag' was translated into chinese language, making it a common noun «mountain», and not as part of the original word.

If we compare this new interpretation of the city / mountains ‘Ur-tag Balik’ with the other famous sources, describing the territory of Kipchaks hordes in the XII century, it could suggest that similarity of both forms can prove their relation with each other and also help to determine the geolocation.

There are other historical sources, like al-Idrisi (first half of the XII century), that refer to the «country (land) of Kipchak», or Deshti-Kipchak. Ohter authors that discribe Kipchacs lifestyles are Abu al-Feeds and Ibn Said al-Maghribi (XIII-XIV centuries.).

Let us turn to the al-ldrisi source first, mainly to the 6th climate, sections 8 and 9, where he describes the so-called «Bad-smell Earth» nearby the boundaries of «basdzhirt's land (Bashkirs land)», refering to the hill Tagur[44].

According to his describtion of the «Bad-smell Earth» more precisely, its rivers, which flow into the Caspian Sea to the north-east, as well as its location relatively to the river Volga, emphasises to the land to the north-east of the delta of the Volga.

R.P.Khrapachevsky suggests that it can also be assumed that part of the defeated Kipchaks from the  Inasy Hord, ran to Bashkirian people. The reason for this can be explained by their neighbourhood dwelling and because Bashkirian family groups had among them ancestorial name, which has a direct   relation with Kuns-Kipchaks, called Hiun-Qipsaqs  (hуун/hөйөн — in Bashkir language)[45].

In his special research, I.G.Dobrodomov showed that the ancient Russian — «Hynovie», with the help of Bulgar intermedium, can be seen as a reflective name of Kuns-Kypchaks, which in the XII century sounded like ‘huun’[46].

Another confirmation of the inclusion of Kuns-Kipchaks in the Bashkirian tribe can be found when examining their battle cry (uran) was «toksaba».

And Toksoba tribe, as we know, was very famous among pre-Mongolian Kypchaks[47]. In the ancient Russian chronicles «toksobichi» and «kaepichi» (were the members of Kai genus) are often mentioned together, which correlates with the Marvazi's message about the connection of Kypchaks' Hords — Kuns and Kais.

Moreover, Kai people in Turkey were descendants of the founder of the Ottoman empire — the son of Osman the I — Gazi Ertogrul.

They have similar match with Bashkirs of Saka-Dinlings sub-branch, which means that Kai (Qai, Qayi, Kayi) and Kun peoples, the descendants of the Oghuz-Khan and the Kun-Yan — were members of the same clan.

Damat Gürcü Halil Rifat Paşa FTEMF R1a 13 25 15 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31 16 9 9 11 11 25 14 20 34 12 15 16 16 11 12 19 23 15 15 18 19 35 39 14 11.

We can trace few other parallels relying on this data. For instance, it is known that the Teleu tribes were known in history as 'tokuz oguz', meaning 'nine generations', but as we have noted above the second name of Kun-Kipchaks was also 'tuksaba', which also can be translated as 'people with 9 generations'.

Besides this, Kipchaks were considered to be descendants of the Oguz tribes. According to Oguz (Oghuz) Kagan legend by Rashid al-Din, Kipchaks were treated as of the 24th Oguz tribe.

Being defeated by Mongols, a lot of Kuns along with other Mongols migrated to the East (for example Baldusak the father of Tutuq), while others remained in their homeland and eventually merged with other neighboring Bashkirian tribes.

R.R.Suyunov could match the name of one of the descendants of Kun-Yan — Hurusman with Suraman, the ruler of Bashkirian Teleu tribe. According to Bashkirian legends, Suraman was a 'Qatay' (other words: the immigrant Kun from China), who lived in the Ural XIII century[48].

Suraman's grandson Bashman, was Kypchak's hero, who organized the fight against the Mongolian tribe Mengu-Kaan.

According to the Bashman's legend he came from a Olo-Bure tribe (the great wolf)[49], also calling itself the wolves (bure), belonging to Teleu Bashkirs.

DNA testing has confirmed the affinity of the Bashkirs of the Bure-Teleu with other Kuns descendants, like Sura-Uf-Teleus, Huun-, Qariy-, Sankem-, Boschman-Qipsaqs and Suyun-Nughay-Buryjans.

The seventh child of the Bashman's family line was Nogai Mirza — Basman from whom appeared Suyun-Nughay-Burzyans, Sankems and Boschman-Qipsaqs. From Basman's sibling brother — Tura, appeared Sura-Uf-Teleus.

In the XVIII century, there lived a famous Boschman-Kipsak — Kinzya Arslanov, associate of E.I.Pugachev.

The fact that Kinzya Arslanov was a direct descendant of the Kuns was confirmed by the DNA results, that were carried out on the remainings of his sibling brother of Irnazar Arslanov.

His DNA test results came in line with the data of DNA testing of descendants of the Kun-Yan tribes of Bashkirs from other the Bashkirs tribes.

262279 Boshman Qipsaq Bashkir Irnazar Arslanov (XVIII), Ural, Boshman-Qipsaq clan Russian Federation R1a1 13 25 15 11 11-13 12 12 10 13 11 31 15 9-9 11 11 25 14 20 34 12-15-15-16 11 11 19-23 16 16 18 20 34-38 13 11

No less interesting is the DNA-Genealogy data of other Bashkiran tribes. In the right part of the tree-shaped table in Fig. 2 there are loose set of the individual haplogroups of  Bashkirs, like N1b, N1c1, E1b, G1a, G2a, J1, I1, R1b.

 

Figure. 2. represents a tree-shaped table with 37-marker haplotypes of 56 Bashkirs

 

The basic subclades of haplogroup R1a and other single haplogroups

There are too few and too inconsistent to carry out new researches. There are three other haplotypes of the subclades Z280, but such single haplotypes of no special interest to the current study. They could get to Bashkirian population at any time, including the recent centuries.

In order to cover a wider range of haplotypes, we should briefly consider the tree-shaped table of 37-marker haplotypes.

They do not have 30 markers of the last panel, therefore, the results are less precise, but it is partially compensated by their large sample number in the project.

As can be seen, the fundamental pattern of the branches of a tree with 37-marker haplotypes is the same as in Fig. 2.

There are 8 haplotypes in the subclade Z2123, only two more than in the 67-marker haplotype set. The basic haplotype is the same as in the first 37 markersfrom the 67-marker haplotype. All 8 haplotypes contain 24 mutations, which gives 24/8/0.09 = 33 à 34 generations, or 850 ± 190 years to a common ancestor.

This is almost the same time period as calculated above for the subclade  Z2123, 750 ± 180 years to a common ancestor.

Here 0.09 — is the constant of the speed of the mutation, including mutations in the 37-marker haplotype in the conventional generation in 25 years.

This example shows that even with other quantity of the haplogroups, 37 markers instead of 67, the results stay the same.

Among the haplotypes R1a there are few haplogroups that fall out from the branches R1a+L342.2 and R1a+Z2123. This — haplotype subclades included in subclade Z280, presumably R1a+Z280 CEA2, R1a+Z280 WEA1, R1a+Z280 BC1, R1a+Z280 BC2, R1a+Z280 NC. These subclades present no interest to the current study, as their descendants of the Central Eurasian Branch, Baltic-Carpathian and North Carpathian (Russia, Uklrain, Belarussia)[50].

As an example, should also be considered a similar haplotypes of haplogroup I1 and I2a of Bashkir project. Below — Tatar 111-marker haplotype of haplogroup I1:

13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 12 12 11 28 — 15 8 8 8 11 22 16 21 29 12 12 14 14 — 10 10 19 21 15 14 16 19 36 36 12 10 — 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 9 9 12 23 24 15 10 12 12 16 8 13 25 20 14 13 11 12 11 11 12 11 — 31 12 8 17 11 23 27 19 11 12 12 13 11 9 11 11 10 11 12 31 11 13 21 16 11 10 26 15 18 11 25 18 13 15 28 12 21 18 12 14 19 9 12 11.

 This is a typical Eastern European (and Russian) haplotype with a common ancestor who lived 3600 years ago, the basic 67-marker haplotype:

13 22 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 — 15 8 8 9 11 23 16 20 28 12 14 15 16 — 10 10 19 21 14 14 16 19 35 37 12 10 — 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 9 9 12 23 25 15 10 12 12 16 8 13 25 20 13 13 11 12 11 11 12 11. The deviation from the Tatar haplotype with the base of 13 mutations on 67 markers (as mentioned above), shows that the common ancestor of the two haplotypes lived about (3025+3600)/2 = 3300±400 years ago. This is the common ancestors of haplogroup I1 in Eastern Europe, as well as almost all of the Europe. Here, 3600 — this is the 'age' of haplogroup I1, 3025 years — is the equivalent of the difference in the 13 mutations in the 67 markers: 13/0.12 = 108 à 121 conditional generations, that is 3025 years old.

There is another single Tatar haplotype — haplogroup I2a1b + M423, the so-called Dinaric subclade, with a common ancestor of 2350±250 years ago. This haplogroup is spread across Eastern Europe from Greece to the Baltic Sea. Tatar 37-marker haplotype:

14 24 15 11 14 16 11 13 13 14 11 31 — 18 8 10 11 11 25 15 20 31 12 14 15 15 — 10 10 21 21 15 12 18 18 34 35 11 10.

Basic Dinaric 67-marker haplotype (mutations marked accordingly to the Tatar haplotype):

13 24 16 11 14 15 11 13 13 13 11 31 — 17 8 10 11 11 25 15 20 32 12 14 15 15 — 10 10 21 21 15 12 18 18 34 35 11 10 — 11 8 15 15 7 12 10 8 11 9 12 22 22 16 10 12 12 12 7 10 30 21 13 14 10 13 11 11 12 9. A total of 37 markers in the Tatar haplotype has 6 mutation, which is equivalent to the time difference 6/0.09 = 67 à 72 conventional generation, or 1800 years between RSD base haplotype (aged 2350 years) and the Tatar haplotype, meaning that their common ancestor lived (in 2350 1800)/2 = 2075±250 years. This is the common ancestor of the Dinaric subclades (2350±250 years ago). Thus, the above Tatar haplotype belongs to the same haplogroup of Dinaric Subclades I2a.

After analyzing the FTDNA and ИБГ УНЦ РАН databases on the Y-chromosome results for the haplogroups R1a and R1b of Bashkirian people, it can be concluded that there are 80 to 90% of Bashkirian population who belong to these haplogroups (with a slight majority of the haplogroup R1b)[51].

All of these results allow us to take a new look at the origins of the Bashkir people, to determine the truth or falsity of previous concepts of the ethnic history of Bashkir tribes, and secure the new results relying on the database from the DNA-Genealogy.

 

Bibliography and Notes:

[1] National clans project of FTDNA, familytreedna.com/public/Bashqort_Clans/default.aspx?section=yresults Site of Bashkirian genealogies, shejere.narod.ru/bashkirs-ydna.htm

[2] The publication this article in Russian, see: Клёсов А.А., Муратов Б.А., Суюнов Р.Р. ДНК-генеалогия башкирских родов//Proceedings of the Academy of DNA Genealogy. Vol.6, №6, June 2013, Boston-Moscow-Tsukuba. P.1083-1102,ISSN 1942-7484.

[3] Info: 13.09.2013, Isogg.org ©

[4] I.L.Rozhanskii and A.A.Klyosov, 2012. Adv. Anthropol. Vol 2., №3, P.139-156.

[5] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. 1-й том, проект «Суюн», 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное. М., Урал, 2013, 267 c., ISBN 9785990458314, С.60-61.

[6] Художники Лобырев М.А., Мочалов В.П//Соловьёв А.И. Оружие и доспехи: сибирское вооружение: от каменного века до средневековья. Новосибирск, Инфолио, 2003, 224 с. ISBN 5-89590-035-6 .

[7] I.L.Rozhanskii and A.A.Klyosov, 2012. Adv. Anthropol. Vol 2., №3, P.139-156.

[8] Markers are given in the format FTDNA: DYS393, DYS390, DYS19, DYS391, DYS385, DYS426, DYS388, DYS439, DYS389i, DYS392, DYS389ii, DYS458, DYS459, DYS455, DYS454, DYS447, DYS437, DYS448, DYS449, DYS464, DYS460, Y-GATA-H4, YCAII, DYS456, DYS607, DYS576, DYS570, CDY, DYS442, DYS438, DYS531, DYS578, DYF395S1, DYS590, DYS537, DYS641, DYS472, DYF406S1, DYS511, DYS425, DYS413, DYS557, DYS594, DYS436, DYS490, DYS534, DYS450, DYS444, DYS481, DYS520, DYS446, DYS617, DYS568, DYS487, DYS572, DYS640, DYS492, DYS565, DYS710, DYS485, DYS632, DYS495, DYS540, DYS714, DYS716, DYS717, DYS505, DYS556, DYS549, DYS589, DYS522, DYS494, DYS533, DYS636, DYS575, DYS638, DYS462, DYS452, DYS445, Y-GATA-A10, DYS463, DYS441, Y-GGAAT-1B07, DYS525, DYS712, DYS593, DYS650, DYS532, DYS715, DYS504, DYS513, DYS561, DYS552, DYS726, DYS635, DYS587, DYS643, DYS497, DYS510, DYS434, DYS461, DYS435.

[9] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. 1-й том, проект «Суюн», 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ISBN 9785990458314, С.124-130.

[10] Сафин Ф.А. Путешествие в минувшее (Караидельский район). Записки историка-краеведа. Уфа, Башкорт тау, 2012, 142 с., С.119.

[11] Шонkар. Башkортостан йәштәр журналы. Өфө, №6, 1995, С.62.

[12] Антонова К. А., Бонгард-Левин Г. М., Котовский Г. Г.. История Индии (краткий очерк). М., Мысль, 1973.

[13] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. 1-й том, проект «Суюн», 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ISBN 9785990458314, С.113.

[14] Абаeв В.И. Скифский быт и реформа Зороастра//Archiv Orientálni, t. XXIV/1. Praha, 1956. [15] Таскин В.С. Материалы по истории сюнну (по китайским источникам)/Предисловие, перевод и примечания В.С.Таскина. М., 1968.

[16] Грумм-Гржимайло Г.Е. Западная Монголия и Уранхайский край. Л., 1926, Т.II, С.59.

[17] Дебец Г.Ф. Палеоантропология СССР. М.-Л., 1948, С.70.

[18] Гумилёв Л.Г. Динлинская проблема. Пересмотр гипотезы Г.Е. Грумм-Гржимайло в свете новых исторических и археологических материалов//Известия Всесоюзного Географического общества СССР. 1959. №1.

[19] Потапов Л.П. Этнический состав и происхождение алтайцев, С.45.

[20] Кузеев Р.Г. Происхождение башкирского народа. М. Наука, 1974, С.226.

[21] Муратов Б.А. Телеские предки башкир в китайской хронике «Суй-шу». ISSN 1991-5497. Мир науки, культуры, образования. №3 (34) 2012, C.250-252.

[22] Гумилёв Л.Н. Тысячелетия вокруг Каспия. Баку, Азернешр, 1991.

[23] Бичурин Н.Я. Собрание сведений о народах, обитавших в Средней Азии в древние времена. Т.1, С.296.

[24] Луконин В. Г. Древний и раннесредневековый Иран. М., Наука, 1987. 295 с.

[25] Бичурин Н.Я. Собрание сведений о народах, обитавших в Средней Азии в древние времена. Т. II. М.-Л., 1950, C.229.

[26] Абаев В.И. Историко-этимологический словарь осетинского языка. Т. 1. М.-Л., 1958. С. 47-48.

[27] Гамкрелидзе Т.В., Иванов В.В. Индоевропейский язык и индоевропейцы. Т. II. Тбилиси, 1984. С. 755.

[28] Толстов С.П. По следам древнехорезмийской цивилизации. М.-Л., Наука, 1947, С.214.

[29] Ammianus Marcellinus XXXI, 13, 17.

[30] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. 1-й том, проект «Суюн», 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ISBN 9785990458314, С.120.

[31] Гумилев Л.Н. Три исчезнувших народа //Страны и народы Востока, вып. II, 1961, С.107-109.

[32] Гумилёв Л.Н. Тысячелетия вокруг Каспия. Баку, Азернешр, 1991.

[33] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. 1-й том, проект «Суюн», 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ISBN 9785990458314.

[34] Храпачевский Р.П. Половцы-куны в Волго-Уральском междуречье (по данным китайских источников). М., ЦИВОИ, 2013, 128 с., С.25.

[35] Расовский Д.А. Половцы. Чёрные клобуки: печенеги, торки и берендеи на Руси и в Венгрии (работы разных лет). М., ЦИВОИ, 2012, 240 с., С.122; Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. 1-й том, проект «Суюн», 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ISBN 9785990458314, С.120.

[36] In Yan dinasty texts marks like «lien» or «nian» with position to them marks like «ce» or «cyuy» were used for transcription of Turkic and Mongolian words with closed the first syllable (not inherent in Chinese), which was transcription the first character (i.e. the «ce» or «cyuy»): so, the Mongolian word ger-un («belonging to a Yurt, part of a well-known Mongolian term ‘ger-un kuud’) was passed marks ‘ce-lien’. Is a composite as the Kipchak name — from the generic name «kun», known from other sources: in addition to the Kun-Yan,» the famous «Liao Shi» (see below footnote 8), it is independent noted, and in Russia — in the Hypatian chronicle Polovtsian name Kun-Uy».

[37] Look comment Chinese researchers Yan Shi embark upon «The biography of Tutuq» — Yan Shi, P.3140.

[38] Храпачевский Р.П. Половцы-куны в Волго-Уральском междуречье (по данным китайских источников). М., ЦИВОИ, 2013, 128 с., С.19-20.

[39]These mountains and the river, Chinese commentators point to the North-East Aimak Dzhirem County Tunlyao in modern China. See: Yan shi Cidyan, P.268.

[40] Yan Shi, P.3131.

[41] Т.Ollsen in the work of Thomas Allsen Prelude to the Western Capaigns: Mongol Military Operations in the Volga-Ural Region, 1217-1237//Archivium Euarasiae medii aevi. №3 1983, followed P.Pelliot, which offered reconstruction Yuyli-boli as Urbeli, and considers genus Tutuq Olberlik-Kipchaks. But this is a mistake, because Pelliot proceeded from the antiquity of this name, while the author epitaphs grandson of Tutuq, the yuan writer Yu JI (1272-1348), was common in his time of ways transcription, where the signs of Bo-Lee was standard transcription of Yuan Dinasty for Turk.-Mong. words balyk. In addition, the attempt to interpret Yuyli-boli/Urbeli as the transcription of the name of a tribe ölberlik faces contradiction with accurate of Yuan transcription of the name is in the autobiography of Mengusar (tcz. 124 see also Annex 3) name of this tribe was transcription as 穩兒別里欽察 Wen-er-be-Li Qin-cha. Signs 穩兒別里 Wen-er-be-whether in the texts of the Mongolian-Chinese Chancellery XIII-XIV centuries passed non-Chinese ethnicities were sounds of St-p-be-Lee(to), taking into account not uncommon in texts of Yuan dinasty er <-> baie, we have in the end street-be-R-a face that absolutely accurately conveys the name of this clan of ölberlik. Together, all these characters are in the autobiography of Mengusar transmit name ölberlik-Kipchaks, i.e. very accurate to the original name and therefore the link between the Yuli-boli with Olberlik in the presence of such a precise Yuan transcription very difficult. The more mistakenly assumption Olsen that the ancestors of Tutuq have the name «Olberlik» on behalf of the mountains Yuyli-Boli — in addition to up errors in reading them as «Olberlik», himself a transfer of the name of the foreign mountains on the family name as a self-designation is impossible in principle. Because of the «Hidden legends» and from the Mongolian legends in the «Collection of annals of Rashid ad-Din, we know that the Mongolian and Turkic tribes if they took to themselves the new name, it was only in cases of separation of the new clan of the clan of father (grandfather) and create a new branch of it. In such cases, a new genus was named after its founder, and not a stranger to geographical names.

[42] See. Yuan Shi Cidyan, page 268. They rely, in particular, on the message in the text works «Jing Xuan JI yuan author Yan Fu, where there is additional to the text of yuan Shi — information about the places of nomadic Kipchaks clan of Tutuq: the two rivers «I» and «E-te-Li», i.e. Yaik (r. Ural) and Itil (r. Volga).

[43] Ur-tag means «brown mountains», i.e. fits into the tradition names of the mountains, such as for example «Ak-Dag, Kara-Dag, etc.

[44] Коновалова И.Г. ал-Идриси о странах и народах Восточной Европы, С.124, 243.

[45] Суюнов Р.Р. Предисловие// Храпачевский Р.П. Половцы-куны в Волго-Уральском междуречье (по данным китайских источников). М., ЦИВОИ, 2013, 128 с., С.10.

[46]Добродомов И.Г. О половецких этнонимах в древнерусской литературе// Тюркологический сборник 1975, С.125.

[47] Note also that, according to reports Ibn-Khaldun and Rukn ad-Din Beibars devadar El-Mansuri exactly kipchaks genus Toksoba defected to the Mongols in order to defeat their enemies — other kipchaks genus Durut. It is quite possible to assume that the genus Toksoba were those part of the Horde of Inasi-Khan, who together with Hurusman went to the side of the Mongols. See. Золотая Орда в источниках, т.1…, C.240-241.

[48] Башкирское народное творчество. Предания и легенды. Том II, Уфа, Башкнижиздат, 1987, С.168-169.

[49] The exact Yuan transcription of the name is in the autobiography of Mengusar (tcz. 124 see also Annex 3) name of this tribe as 穩兒別里欽察 Wen-er-be-Li Qin-cha. Signs 穩兒別里 Wen-er-be-whether in the texts of the Mongolian-Chinese Chancellery 13-14 centuries passed non-Chinese ethnicities were sounds of St-p-be-Lee(to), taking into account not uncommon in Yuan texts er <-> baie, we have in the end street-be-r-a face that absolutely accurately conveys the name of this clan of ölberlik. * historichka.ru ©.

[50] I.L.Rozhanskii and A.A.Klyosov, 2012. Adv. Anthropol. Vol 2., №3, P.139-156.

[51] Муратов Б.А. Этногенез башкир: историография и современные исследования. 1-й том, проект «Суюн», 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное. М., Урал, 2013, 267 с., ISBN 9785990458314, С.47.

 

Articles

THE BULLETIN OF ETHNOGENOMICS-HISTORICAL PROJECT "SUYUN"

122. The Swadesh list — 1. For Tyurkic, Paleo-Asiatic, Ankalaku and Amerindian languages of Shoshone, Yakama, Nez Perce, Chumash, Choctaw, Mohawk and Purepecha peoples / New! DNA-genealogy of tatar surnames — 6. Vol. 2-nd. Saetgarievs, Yurmi clan and ancient Hungarians (Magyars) The descendants of the Yamnaya culture's population - 2. The Sarmatians. Motives in the epos 'Ural-batir' about ancient migrations The descendants of the Yamnaya culture's population - Bashkirs from the Buryjan and Singran clans, R1b-KMS75 subclade Pelasgians and Balto-Slavic. The search for common roots The descendants of Botai culture, Sauromatians, Savirs-Khazars (MT-DNA — K1 and Y-DNA — Q-M242) Bashkirs i1. Part 2. The data of the full sequence of the representatives from i1-z140 sublade Tocharians-Turanians and Pseudotocharians-Tarimians. The traces of Chemurchek migration Great Chemurchek migration from France to Altai at the beginning of the III-rd millennium B.C. - 1 History of the study and linguistic analysis of the Tocharian languages The origin of Nogais clans by the results of ethnogenomical expeditions of EH Project "Suyun" — 2 About the descendants of Genghis Khan by data of ethnogenomics - 1. The merkitian warrior Chiledu was father of Genghis Khan? La coincidencias lingüística - 1. Idioma baskir y español The DNA-genealogy of Bashkirs tribes - 8. Ayle, Qir-Qangli, Asili-Qobau, Ithel-Elan clans The haplogroups of the representatives from ancient Turkic clans - Ashina and Ashide The answers to ''the reviews'' and works of philisopher and political scientist Zh.M. Sabitov in History and Ethnogenomics - 1 The DNA-genealogy of Bashkirs tribes - 5. The descendants of Muytens (Hurrians-Mitanni) The selected texts from article: 'The ancient tribe - Alan'' Oghuz clans: ethnogenesis and genogeography - 1 The Big-Y results of Buryjan Bashkirs. Vol. 1 The origin of Nogais claThe genogeography of 67-markers haplotypes R1a. Information: March 2017 ns by the results of ethnogenomical expeditions of EH Project "Suyun" — 1

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